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Introduction
来源:    日期: 2017-9-11  

 

Introduction

The name "Shaanxi" means Land West of the Shanguan Pass. This pass in Henan province, now part of Shanzhou District of Sanmenxia city, was considered to be the place where the Yellow River left the Loess Plateau and entered the North China Plain, although its exposed nature meant that the Hanguguan and Tongguan Passes to its west were more strategically important.

Because the Chinese pronunciation of Shaanxi and its eastern neighbor Shanxi differ only in tone, their spelling differs only by tone marks. The authorities therefore adopted the special official spelling "Shaanxi" for occasions when such marks are omitted.

Shaanxi lies in Northwest China. It covers an area of over 205,000 km2  with about 38 million people. Xi'an—which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an—is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.

Shaanxi comprises the Wei Valley and much of the surrounding fertile Loess Plateau, stretching from the Qinling Mountains and Southern Shaanxi in the south to the Ordos Desert in the north. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi province and Henan province, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization, with its Guanzhong region sheltering the capitals of the Zhou, Qin, Han, Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties. It does not include the full territory of the Yellow River's Ordos Loop, with the Great Wall of China separating it from the grasslands and deserts of Inner Mongolia.

 

 

As of the mid-19th century, Shaanxi exported animal skins, wine, liquor, and musk. Money loans were also common, with Shaanxi business people involved in the Guangzhou loan business. Shaanxi commonly imported European animal skins, watches, Chinese language books, and cloth.

The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. The province ranked third in China for production of coal, natural gas and crude oil. As the home of several of the leading universities and research institutes in Western China, Shaanxi province also plays a major role in China's burgeoning aircraft and aerospace industries, producing more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry. Nominal GDP for 2011 was 1,239 billion RMB (US$196.7 billion) and GDP per capita was 21,729 RMB (US$3,179), ranking 17th in the PRC.

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